Have you been victimized in the workplace? Have you been the victim of workplace retaliation, age, gender or sexual orientation discrimination? If so, you may be entitled to benefits and financial compensation according to federal labor laws as well as state laws in the state where you are employed. You need an attorney who provides expert legal representation to clients involved in Employment Law disputes, Labor Law issues and workers’ compensation cases throughout the entire United States. Our team of employment law lawyers have had a successful track record of mediating, arbitrating and litigating employment law cases for many years. They are pleased to provide highly personalized service to each of their clients which include the black, Latino and LGBTQ communities among others. You can begin your free case eval by visiting @employmentlawlawyers today.
Our Miami, Florida employment law lawyers are dedicated exclusively to the practice of employment law and are always up to date on the most recent statutory and judicial changes to employment law. They are committed to ensuring that their clients are treated fairly by their employers and always strive to preserve and protect employee rights. Our gay Virginia employment law attorneys have obtained several multi-million dollar verdicts on behalf of individual employees. Contact them today for a free consultation and let them protect your rights.
Where Our Gay Friendly Labor Law Attorneys Serve
Our Washington DC employment law lawyers serve all 50 states & Puerto Rico including Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Washington D.C., Wisconsin and Wyoming.
Cases Our Queer Employment Law Attorneys Handle
Our team of African American Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania employment law lawyers represents clients in a broad range of employment law litigation, including but not limited to:
Sexual Harassment: Making someone in the workplace feel uncomfortable via bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors is considered sexual harassment. In most modern legal contexts, sexual harassment is illegal. As defined by the United States‘ Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), “It is unlawful to harass a person (an applicant or employee) because of that person’s sex.” Harassment can include “sexual harassment” or unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature. The legal definition of sexual harassment varies by jurisdiction and both state and federal laws are applicable in sexual harassment claims.
Wrongful Termination: This employment law issue is also referred to as wrongful termination or wrongful discharge, is a legal phrase, describing a situation in which an employee’s contract of employment has been terminated by the employer if the termination breaches one or more terms of the contract of employment, or a statute provision in employment law. It follows that the scope for wrongful dismissal varies according to the terms of the employment contract, and varies by jurisdiction. The absence of a formal contract of employment does not preclude wrongful dismissal in jurisdictions in which a de facto contract is taken to exist by virtue of the employment relationship. Terms of such a contract may include obligations and rights outlined in an employee handbook. Being terminated for any of the items such as discrimination, retaliation or sexual harassment may constitute wrongful termination. Contact our Los Angeles California employment law lawyers to discuss your case.
Disabilities & Reasonable Accommodations: Discrimination in employment against qualified individuals with disabilities is prohibited by the federal Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). This includes private employers, state and local governments, employment agencies, labor organizations (such as unions) and labor-management committees. The ADA covers employment practices such as recruitment, hiring, firing, promotions, training, job assignments, benefits, pay and all other employment-related activities.
ADA rights include access to reasonable accommodations, such as changes or adjustments to the workplace, that help an individual with a disability do his or her job and enjoy the benefits afforded to employees without disabilities. By stipulating a “reasonable” accommodation, ADA regulations do not require measures that would create an undue hardship in difficulty or expense.
Discrimination in the Workplace: Employment discrimination law in the United States derives from the common law, and is codified in numerous state and federal laws, particularly the Civil Rights Act 1964, as well as in the ordinances of counties and municipalities. These laws prohibit discrimination based on certain characteristics or protected categories. The United States Constitution also prohibits discrimination by federal and state governments against their public employees. Discrimination in the private sector is directly constrained by the Constitution, but has become subject to a growing body of federal and state law. Federal law prohibits discrimination in a number of areas, including recruiting, hiring, job evaluations, promotion policies, training, compensation and disciplinary action. State laws often extend protection to additional categories or employers.
Under Federal law, employers generally cannot discriminate against employees on the basis of: race, sex, sexual orientation, pregnancy, religion, national origin, age, ethnicity, disability, military service, bankruptcy or bad debt, genetic information and citizenship (applicable to citizens, permanent residents, temporary residents,refugees and asylees).
Some studies have found declining gaps in earnings by race overtime as access to high quality education has improved and anti-discrimination and affirmative action policies have been implemented. If you feel you have been discriminated against for any of these reasons, or others, please contact our team of Seattle, Washington employment law lawyers for a free consultation.
Employment Contracts: Contract management or contract administration is the management of contracts made with customers, vendors, partners, or employees. The personnel involved in contract administration required to negotiate, support and manage effective contracts are often expensive to train and retain. Contract management includes negotiating the terms and conditions in contracts and ensuring compliance with the terms and conditions, as well as documenting and agreeing on any changes or amendments that may arise during its implementation or execution. It can be summarized as the process of systematically and efficiently managing contract creation, execution, and analysis for the purpose of maximizing financial and operational performance and minimizing risk.
Common commercial contracts include employment letters, sales invoices, purchase orders, and utility contracts. Complex contracts are often necessary for construction projects, goods or services that are highly regulated, goods or services with detailed technical specifications, intellectual property (IP) agreements, outsourcing and international trade. Most larger contracts require the effective use of contract management software to aid administration among multiple parties.
Employer Retaliation: Workplace retaliation, also known as employment retaliation or employer retaliation, is an offense under laws which address employment discrimination at both the state and federal levels. It is illegal to fire someone based on gender, race, religious creed, color, national origin, ancestry, physical disability, mental disability, medical condition, having filed a workers’ compensation claim, genetic information, marital status, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, age, sexual orientation, or military and veteran status of any person, to refuse to hire or employ the person or to refuse to select the person for a training program leading to employment, or to bar or to discharge the person from employment or from a training program leading to employment, or to discriminate against the person in compensation or in terms, conditions, or privileges of employment. If you have been the victim of employer retaliation It is also illegal for an employer, labor organization, employment agency, or person to discharge, expel, or otherwise discriminate against any person because the person has opposed any practices forbidden under this part or because the person has filed a complaint, testified, or assisted in any proceeding under this part.
The test of whether workplace retaliation has occurred is whether the action would deter a reasonable person in the situation of the employee from making a complaint. The “situation” of the employee includes the granular circumstances of the employee and their particular job, such as child care and scheduling issues. Witnesses and persons who cooperate with investigations of discrimination may also be protected.
Hostile Workplace Environment: In United States labor law, a hostile work environment exists when one’s behavior within a workplace creates an environment that is difficult or uncomfortable for another person to work in due to discrimination. Common complaints in sexual harassment lawsuits include fondling, suggestive remarks, sexually-suggestive photos displayed in the workplace, use of sexual language, or off-color jokes. Small issues, annoyances, and isolated incidents typically are not considered to be illegal. To be unlawful, the conduct must create a work environment that would be intimidating, hostile, or offensive to a reasonable person. An employer can be held liable for failing to prevent these workplace conditions, unless it can prove that it attempted to prevent the harassment and that the employee failed to take advantage of existing harassment counter-measures or tools provided by the employer.
A hostile work environment may also be created when management acts in a manner designed to make an employee quit in retaliation for some action. For example, if an employee reported safety violations at work, was injured, attempted to join a union, or reported regulatory violations by management, and management’s response was to harass and pressure the employee to quit. Employers have tried to force employees to quit by imposing unwarranted discipline, reducing hours, cutting wages, or transferring the complaining employee to a distant work location. If you feel you are the victim of an intentional hostile work environment please contact our team of Nashville, Tennessee employment law lawyers for a free consult.
Meal Breaks & Rest Breaks: Federal employment laws don’t require lunch or coffee breaks. However, when employers do offer short breaks (usually lasting about 5 to 20 minutes), federal law considers the breaks as compensable work hours that would be included in the sum of hours worked during the work week and considered in determining if overtime was worked. Unauthorized extensions of authorized work breaks need not be counted as hours worked when the employer has expressly and unambiguously communicated to the employee that the authorized break may only last for a specific length of time, that any extension of the break is contrary to the employer’s rules, and any extension of the break will be punished.
A meal period is typically defined as one lasting at least 30 minutes, serve a different purpose than coffee or snack breaks and, thus, are not work time and are not compensable. In all states there are local state laws that come into play and dictate whether or not you are compensated for meal and rest breaks. If you feel you are not being given meal and rest breaks in accordance with laws in your state please contact our Philadelphia employment law lawyers for a free consult.
Medical Leave and Family Law: The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) provides certain employees with up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave per year. It also requires that their group health benefits be maintained during the leave.
FMLA is designed to help employees balance their work and family responsibilities by allowing them to take reasonable unpaid leave for certain family and medical reasons. It also seeks to accommodate the legitimate interests of employers and promote equal employment opportunity for men and women.
FMLA applies to all public agencies, all public and private elementary and secondary schools, and companies with 50 or more employees. These employers must provide an eligible employee with up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave each year for reasons such as having child, adopting a child, caring for an immediate family member and an employee being unable to work due to a serious medical condition.
Severance Agreement Negotiations: A severance agreement is a form of settlement agreement under which an aggrieved employee agrees to accept an agreed sum of money in exchange for, among other things, abandoning all claims against the employer. Where it can be negotiated, a severance agreement saves money and aggravation for both sides. In addition to a release of all claims, severance agreements commonly include such provisions as “confidentiality,” an agreement that the employee will not compete against the employer, and that neither the employer nor the employee will make negative comments about the other.
If you have been laid off or discharged, and your employer offers you a Severance Package, don’t sell yourself short. You need an advocate to review the agreement and negotiate while looking out for your best interests. Our San Antonio, Texas employment law lawyers can help you interpret the “legalese” in your Severance Agreement. We are dedicated to making sure that your rights are protected and you are properly compensated in the event of a termination.
Trade Secrets: A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers. In some jurisdictions, such secrets are referred to as “confidential information” but are generally not referred to as “classified information” in the United States, since that refers to government secrets protected by a different set of laws and practices. If you have concerns about trade secrets, protecting them or other issues surrounding them please contact our team of Detroit, Michigan employment law lawyers for a free consultation.
Overtime & Wage Laws: Overtime is the amount of time someone works beyond normal working hours. The term is also used for the pay received for this time. Normal hours may be determined in several ways such as by custom, what is deemed healthy or reasonable by society, by legislation and agreements between employers or their representatives.
Whistleblower Laws: Whistleblowers are people who expose any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public. The information of alleged wrongdoing can be classified in many ways: violation of company policy/rules,law, regulation, or threat to public interest/national security, as well as fraud, and corruption. Those who become whistleblowers can choose to bring information or allegations to surface either internally or externally. Internally, a whistleblower can bring his/her accusations to the attention of other people within the accused organization such as an immediate supervisor. Externally, a whistleblower can bring allegations to light by contacting a third party outside of an accused organization such as the media, government, law enforcement, or those who are concerned. Whistleblowers, however, take the risk of facing stiff reprisal and retaliation from those who are accused or alleged of wrongdoing.
Contact Our Employment Law Attorneys For A Free Consult
If you have been the victim of workplace discrimination, harassment, or believe that your employer is acting in violation of either Federal Labor Laws or local labor laws, please contact our Los Angeles, California employment law lawyers by filling out our Employment Law Case Evaluation Form. A representative from our office will contact you after we have fully reviewed the information provided.
For immediate assistance please contact our Chicago, Illinois employment law lawyers to schedule a free initial consultation.
No matter what state you were injured in our team of Houston, Texas employment law lawyers and El Paso, TX employment law lawyers can help as they serve the entire United States.
Our Washington DC employment law lawyers serve all 50 states including Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Washington D.C., Wisconsin and Wyoming.
Comparing State Labor Laws Federal Employment Laws
Each state with in the United States, as well as Puerto Rico & Washington D.C. have laws specifically dealing with child labor issues. When federal and state standards are different, the rules that provide the most protection to youth workers will apply. Employers must comply with both federal law and applicable state laws.
Federal child labor rules are established by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) FLSA rules affect full- and part-time workers in the private sector and in the federal, state, and local governments. The rules vary depending on the age of the youth worker and his or her occupation.
The FLSA “covers” or applies to all employees of certain enterprises. All employees of an enterprise, as defined by the FLSA, are covered regardless of the duties they perform. An important factor in determining coverage is interstate commerce, the generation of income over state lines by various means. If an employer engages in interstate commerce of any kind, its employees are covered by the FLSA and child labor laws in its state. If an employee is not an employee of one of these enterprises, he or she may still be covered if the employees own duties meet certain interstate commerce requirements. In addition, if a business generates income of $500,000 per year, it is subject to federal labor laws.
Section 12(a) of the FLSA covers youth employed in an establishment in which goods are produced for commerce. Under this provision, the youth does not have to be personally engaged in the production of goods for interstate commerce to be protected by the child labor provisions of the FLSA. As long as somewhere in or about the establishment where the youth is employed, or within 30 days of the youth’s employment, goods are produced and removed for shipment in commerce, the youth is protected by the child labor provisions of the FLSA.
Workers Compensation Laws
If you are hurt or injured at work, your family, livelihood and the life you currently enjoy may be permanently impacted. Workplace injuries are very common in all work environments such as clerical or administrative settings, manual labor intensive occupations, and health care facilities. Filing a workers compensation claim is very complex and should be done by our nationwide team of experienced Towson, Maryland workers compensation lawyers.
Having an experienced workers compensation lawyer on your side will ensure that your claim is filed correctly, on time, and your rights are protected. Our Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania workers compensation lawyers are well versed in all states workers compensation law and how the system works. During the course of my legal career they have handled all types of workers compensation claims including:
Repetitive stress injuries
Workplace slip and falls
Machine and equipment accidents
Fatal workplace accidents
If injured in the workplace you may be entitled to benefits such as:
Partial and total disability
Scarring and disfigurement
Medical expense coverage
Death and funeral benefits
Time is of the essence with filing a workers compensation claim no matter what state the injury took place in. Contact our San Diego, California workers compensation lawyers today to discuss your case and how to protect your rights.
Our team of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania workers compensation lawyers handle workers compensation cases on a contingency fee basis meaning they charge no fee for work related injury claims unless they recover on your behalf.
Serving all 50 states including Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Washington D.C., Wisconsin and Wyoming.
Workers Comp Attorneys Helping You
Accidents and work injuries can occur in almost any workplace setting. These injuries may be related to repetitive activities such as typing, data entry, lifting and the like. On the other hand, the injury can be related to a single work incident such as slipping in the parking lot, slipping on a wet floor, falling on stairs, falling off a ladder, bending, lifting an object, being hit by a pipe or a box or even a vehicle. Certain work environments are inherently more likely to be the location of serious or even life threatening or fatal injuries, such as construction sites or other heavy labor employment. Injuries can also occur from the use of equipment and machinery. You should know your rights when injured in the scope of your employment. Our Columbus, Ohio workers compensation lawyers are experienced with workman’s compensation issues and can help you protect your rights to have your medical bills paid and your lost wages covered while you are unable to work.
If you have been hurt or injured while performing a work related task contact our team of Las Vegas, Nevada workers compensation lawyers. With many years experience handling all accidents occurring in a workplace setting they are well versed in Workman’s Compensation Law.
Filing A Workers’ Comp Claim
As there are steps and legal processes associated with properly filing a Workers Compensation claim you should not attempt to file your claim yourself. Working with a skilled and experienced Delaware Work Accident Lawyer will make you feel at ease knowing that they will manage any and all legal and administrative aspects regarding filing your claim. If you file your claim yourself and do it incorrectly, or not within the allotted time frame your claim can be denied and you may disqualify yourself from receiving financial compensation, benefits and medical care. It is in your best interest to consult with our Louisville, Kentucky workers compensation lawyers prior to attempting to file your own claim.
Workers’ Comp Benefits
Laws in each state provide certain workers’ compensation protections and benefits. The benefits you are entitled to seek will depend on the nature and extent of your injuries.
Issues may include what types of medical care your physician prescribes, how long your recovery lasts, how seriously your injuries impair your ability to return to your place of employment or any other place of employment. Benefits that may be afforded to injured workers include:
Temporary Total Disability
Temporary Partial Disability
Mileage Reimbursement For Medical Appointments
Commutation lump sum payments
There are certain protections that are not afforded by the workers compensation law. Pain and suffering benefits are usually not recoverable form your employer, but may be if a third party is involved in causing the injury. In addition, your job is not automatically protected by the fact that you have suffered a work injury. It is important to talk to one of our experienced Honolulu, Hawaii worker’s compensation attorneys to find out what benefits you may be entitled to recover.
Workers Comp Benefits For Illegal Aliens
Undocumented immigrants make up 3.5% of the U.S. workforce. In California, undocumented immigrants make up 10% of the workforce. Every year, several undocumented workers suffer a work-related injury. Can undocumented workers receive workers’ compensation? It depends and our workers’ compensation lawyers will help you get the benefits and compensation you are entitled to.
Below is an overview of federal and state laws regarding workers’ compensation benefits for undocumented workers. Contact our undocumented workers workers compensation lawyers for a confidential consultation regarding your workers’ compensation claim. As an undocumented worker, you may be entitled to benefits. Read on to learn more about workers’ compensation benefits for undocumented workers.
Immigration Reform & Control Act
The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) is a federal law which requires employers to verify their employee’s eligibility to work in the U.S. Under federal law, it is illegal for undocumented immigrants to work in the U.S. Employers that violate IRCA can be heavily sanctioned. Employers can face up to $10,000 in sanctions for each unauthorized employee.
In the past, employers have tried to apply provisions of the IRCA to prohibit undocumented immigrant workers from obtaining workers’ compensation benefits. Employees have argued that since undocumented immigrants are not authorized to work in the U.S., state workers’ compensation laws do not protect them in the event of a work-related injury. Despite the federal prohibition on unauthorized workers, many state laws allow undocumented workers to receive workers’ compensation benefits. A state’s workers’ compensation statutes must reference undocumented worker’s ability to file for benefits. State statutes that allow undocumented immigrants to apply for workers’ compensation benefits include Arkansas, California, Colorado, Hawaii, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas.
Eligibility For Workers’ Comp Benefits
If you are an undocumented worker who is injured on the job, you may be eligible for workers’ compensation benefits. If you are eligible, you may receive compensation for lost work and medical bills. In exchange, you will forfeit your right to sue your employer for damages outside of the workers’ compensation system. The following requirements must be met in order for you obtain workers’ compensation benefits:
- Your employer must have workers’ compensation insurance. Not all employers are required to hold workers’ compensation insurance. Workers’ compensation coverage requirements vary from state-to-state. An employer’s responsibility to provide workers’ compensation coverage will depend on how many employees he/she has, the type of business, and the type of work the employees are performing. In some states, an employer must have three employees for it to be mandated to obtain workers’ compensation coverage. Some states only require one employee. Speak with an experienced attorney to find out if your employer is required to carry workers’ compensation insurance.
Stan is employed at Home Bargains USA. The company has 80 employees. The state in which Stan works requires employers who have more than 10 employees to carry workers’ compensation insurance. Stan is injured at work after suffering a slip-and-fall accident. Because Stan’s employer is required to carry workers’ compensation insurance, he can file a claim for benefits.
The federal government has a workers’ compensation system for federal employees. If you are a federal employee who was injured while working, contact us to learn more about federal employee workers’ compensation laws.
- You must be an employee. As mentioned above, if you are an unauthorized worker, the state workers’ compensation statute must apply to undocumented workers for you to seek benefits. Even if your state covers undocumented workers, if you are an independent contractor, you may not be eligible for workers’ compensation benefits.
Sarah is an undocumented delivery driver. The state in which she resides authorizes undocumented workers to receive workers’ compensation benefits. She works as an independent contractor for several companies. While under contract with Helpful USA, she was involved in a car accident. Because Sarah is an independent contractor, she may not be eligible for workers’ compensation benefits.
- Your injury or illness must be work related. Finally, your injury or illness must be work related to obtain workers’ compensation benefits. A work-related injury occurs when you perform a task for the benefit of your employer and you suffer an injury or illness as a result thereof.
Peter works in the warehouse of Home Improvement, Inc. While unloading boxes from the pick-up truck into the warehouse, he suffered a slip-and-fall injury due to uneven floors. As an authorized worker, if Peter’s employer is required to carry workers’ compensation insurance, he can file a claim for benefits because his injury occurred while he was performing a task for his employer.
Some states prohibit the applicability of workers’ compensation insurance coverage to certain workers. Though you may meet the requirements referenced above, you may not qualify for workers’ compensation insurance if you fall into one of the following work classifications:
- Domestic workers.
- Agricultural and farm workers.
- Leased or loaned workers.
- Casual or seasonal workers.
Filing A Work Comp Claim For Undocumented Workers
Do not let your undocumented status keep you from filing for workers’ compensation insurance. You may be entitled to benefits like documented workers. Depending on the nature of your injury, you employer may be liable in paying your medical expenses and lost wages. You must act quickly when filing for benefits. Any delays could bar you from recovery. You may receive temporary or permanent disability benefits. If your loved one passed away, you may be entitled to survivor benefits.
We invite you to contact our work injury lawyers today to discuss your workers’ compensation eligibility. All discussions are in complete confidence. You do not have to worry about your immigration status being jeopardized when meeting with our Harrisburg, Pennsylvania workers’ comp attorneys. We will fight to ensure you receive the benefits you deserve.
Most states require injured employees to report workplace injuries to their employers immediately. You can contact us prior to reporting the injury if you fear retaliation in doing so. Again, your employer may try and invoke IRCA to prohibit you from receiving compensation. Talk to our Delaware workers’ comp attorneys so you are familiar with your rights. Each state has different workers’ compensation laws. You may be covered under your state law and occupation.
No matter what state your claim is in our team of employment law attorneys can help as they serve all 50 states and Washington D.C. including: Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Washington D.C., West Virginia, Wisconsin & Wyoming.